Musical Traditions of America

Symptom development. music led to the creation of permanent symphonies. orchestras. In 1842, W. K. Hill, H. K. Timm and W. Scharfenberg founded. New York Philharmonic. Society with its own orchestra (the 1st concert of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, which later won world fame, took place on 7 XII 1842); T. Thomas, who later headed this group, expanded its repertoire, often toured in various places. US cities. In 1848, a group of revolutionary-minded musicians forced to leave Germany moved to the United States and founded the Muses. Society “Germany”; in the concert programs of his orchestra – Op. L. Beethoven, F. Schubert, F. Mendelssohn.

In con. 19th century on the model of it. Philharmonic about-in were created and Amer. philharmonic.

There were basic the first large orc. collectives, many of which have retained their names to this day. and arts. traditions; prototype of many husband. choir. about-in and clubs were him. leaderboard. Since the last quarter of the 19th century. orcs began to be created in the largest cities of the United States. teams. In 1878, the main New York Symphony Orchestra, in 1881 – symphony. orchestras in Boston and St. Louis, in 1892 in Chicago, in 1895 in Pittsburgh, in 1896 in Cincinnati, in 1897 in Los Angeles, in 1900 in Philadelphia. The orchestras were led by arr. German conductors (in addition to Thomas, V. and L. Damroshi, V. Guericke and others), who performed preim. op. Viennese classics, prod. romantics, as well as F. Liszt. The music of even the most famous Amer. composers of that time (symphonies, symphonic paintings, oratorios, cantatas by E. F. Heinrich, Bristow, Fry, etc.), written in the spirit of European. romanticism, performed extremely rarely.

From Ser. 19th century tours in the USA of the largest European. musicians became regular. The impresario F. T. Barnum played an important role in their organization; The function of the impresario retained its significance even later – the activities of O. Hammerstein the first, M. Strakosh, S. Yurok and others are widely known. The violinist W. Bull performed in the USA (he lived there for some time), the singer E. Lind, Talberg, X. Herz, conductor L. A. Julien and others. approach to art was the desire for sensationalism first of all – the organizers tried to focus the performances of several. “stars” in one concert, as well as to attract as many participants as possible – sometimes up to several. thousand. Often this was done to the detriment of taste and generally accepted artistic standards. ethics – the performance of a world-famous pianist could be between a circus act and a march performed by a spirit. band, etc.

By the 1830s include the first Russian-Amer. contacts in the field of music. art (work in Russia by American musicians J. Zandel and J. Belcher).

The second trend is associated with the emergence of local muses. traditions, expressed in the spread of the chorus. singing at prayer meetings, the formation of dec. Afro-American species. music, the popularity of wandering theatre. troupes of white Americans (the so-called minstrel show) and bands. Along with more strict and regulated church music, evangelical music was played at lengthy and crowded open-air prayer meetings organized by Methodists, Baptists, and others (up to 15,000 people, for example, in Cane Ridge, Kentucky, 1801). songs and spiritual chants of white Americans, the so-called. white spirituals (as opposed to Negro spirituals), psalms with their simplicity and immediacy of expression. Collections of the most popular religions were published. chants – “Kentucky Harmony”, compiled by E. Deyvisson (1816), “Sacred Harp”, published by B. F. White and E. J. King, (1844), and many others, which included the best tunes of F. D. Bliss, A. D. Sankey and others.

Muses played an important role in the formation of local traditions and then in the development of music in the United States as a whole. claim in Amer. blacks.

Starting from the 17th century.

Negro slaves brought from Africa to the New World were carriers of original muses. tradition associated with ancient Africa. culture, to-paradise was exposed in America to the influence of muses. traditions of immigrants from Europe (including religious psalmody). On the plantations of the South, the so-called. hollers and shouts – types of improvised singing. character, distinguished by an abundance of exclamations, interjections, with which the slaves cheered themselves up. At night, at prayer meetings (shouting congregations), ancient ritual songs, psalms, as well as Negro spirituals, which became the first synthetic, were sung. Afro-Amer. form of music expressions.

The peculiarity of the Negro. music in the 18th century. enlightened Americans began to attract (T. Jefferson, 1782, wrote about the musical art of Negroes in his Virginia Notes). The systematization of the Negro. folklore began to be studied by C. Lyell (1840s). In 1867, W. F. Allyn, C. P. Ware, and L. M. Garrison published the first collection of the Negro. songs “Slave Songs of the United States”, which included popular spirituals – “Roll your waters, Jordan”, “Vostrubi, Gabriel”, etc. There were collections of spirituals in arr. G. Burley and S. Foster (arrangements of the latter were more free).

The attitude towards music gradually changed.

lawsuit of blacks; considered at first as exotic, a primitive form of expression, it was recognized as an important component of the Amer. music culture – Afro-Amer. music traditions.